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Efficacy and Safety of Cyclosporine in Children with Steroid-Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome
J. Kor. Soc. Health-syst. Pharm. 2019;36:212-222
Published online May 31, 2019;
© 2019 Korean Society of Health-System Pharmacists

Jung Sun Kima, Rin Sona, Jung Mi Ima, Sung Yun Suha, Yoon Sook Choa, Hye Sun Hyunb, Hee Gyung Kangb and Kyung Hee Choic,†

Department of Pharmacy, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Koreaa, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Koreab, College of Pharmacy, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungangno, Suncheon, Jeonnam, 57922, Republic of Koreac*
Correspondence to: 최경희 Tel:061-750-3763
Received December 1, 2018; Revised January 24, 2019; Accepted March 15, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background : Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is usually responsive to steroid treatment, however, repeated and prolonged use of steroids may result in poor growth, osteoporosis, and cataracts. In order to reduce steroid adverse reactions and to maintain remission, cyclosporine (CsA) is used as a corticosteroid-sparing agent for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) patients. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy and safety of one-year CsA therapy in SDNS children.
Methods : Thirty-five children with SDNS, who were treated with CsA from July 2006 to July 2017, were included in this study. The primary endpoints were defined as the number of relapse episodes and the improvement of clinical symptoms, whereas the secondary endpoints were recognized as the cumulative dose of steroids, adverse drug reactions and nephrotoxicity of CsA.
Results : After one-year treatment, 31 (88.6%) of the 35 patients achieved complete remission and 2 (5.7%) achieved partial remission. Fourteen (40.0%) patients did not relapse during the study. The number of relapse episodes during the CsA therapy was significantly lower than that in the preceding year (P=0.01). Although hirsutism, abdominal pain, and gingival hypertrophy were observed during the therapy, none of these was sufficiently severe to cause discontinuation of treatment. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels after the therapy were similar to those at the time of study entry (P=0.831, 0.056).
Conclusions : One-year treatment with CsA was effective and safe for children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. However, further long-term prospective studies in multiple centers are necessary to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of CsA.
Keywords : Cyclosporine, Nephrotic syndrome, Pediatrics, Steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome